Scope of Practice
Clinical Neuropsychology
Psychological Assessment
Forensic Evaluation
Treatment Related Services
About us
How to find us

The Difference Between a Forensic and
Clinical Psychological/Neuropsychological

There are significant differences between these two types of evaluations, including: the referral source, the goal of the evaluation, the examiner/examinees relationship, the role of the examiner, the ethical principles that guide the evaluation, the scope of the evaluation, the content of the completed report, and the payment source for the evaluation. In general:

A clinical assessment is used to drive diagnosis and treatment planning. This is considered to be medically necessary and can be billed to insurance.

A forensic assessment answers questions for a Court, government agency, employer, or an attorney, and CANNOT be billed to insurance. Either the ordering party (attorney, Court) or the examinee (injured party) pays for the evaluation.

Completed for legal purposes to determine the facts under question in a legal matter. These reports are generally more extensive and detailed than a clinical report. They incorporate a greater amount of collateral (third party) information and may involve police reports, employment records, legal records, etc. The emphasis is on providing an expert opinion for the Court or Trier of Fact and answering specific questions. Treatment recommendations are generally not provided as the examiner is not the examinee's doctor

Completed for medical purposes to assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning. These reports are generally shorter and more technical as they are written for the purpose of communicating with other treatment providers. It is not usually necessary to review extensive records other than the relevant medical records. No expert opinion statement(s) are made and no legal issues are addressed. (An exception to this would be competency/guardianship cases where patient safety is a concern.) A clinical psychologist role cannot be later converted to a forensic psychologist as the focus of the evaluation was different and the doctor/patient relationship has been established.

The attorney will order an Independent Medical Examination from a forensically trained expert to serve as the expert witness in the case.  The examiner can give an expert opinion regarding causation, severity, or veracity of an examinee’s symptoms or injury. The examiner is expected to be unbiased and neutral, have no financial stake in the outcome of the case, and does not form a therapeutic or “helping” relationship with the examinee. The referring source is the client and owns the rights to the report; therefore, it is not given to the examinee and there is no expectation of confidentiality.

A doctor/patient relationship is established and therefore the doctor is biased as they often advocate for their patient. Confidentiality applies and the patient’s self-report is frequently the primary (and sometimes only) information the clinician relies on for diagnosis and treatment planning. If a treating doctor is deposed or asked to testify in a legal matter, their testimony is usually limited to testifying as a Fact Witness. They cannot offer an expert opinion or serve as an expert witness.

If you're involved in a court case and believe you may need a psychological or neuropsychological assessment evaluation, please have your attorney contact us.

Phone:  (440) 546-0048.
   *Please keep in mind that e-mail is never fully confidential.